Wednesday, September 9, 2015

Quodvultdeus’ sermon, Prophet Plays and Jesse Tree Part 2

       Trying to identify the roots of the stained glass and illuminated Jesse Trees is problematic within the traditions of liturgical dramas whether presented as part of the Mass or separately as a skit or play on the steps of a church or on the rolling carts of a street festival.  The earliest liturgical “drama” we have is the movements and words of the priest presenting the sacrifice of the Eucharist for the congregation.  This is not entertainment and not teaching the illiterate or marginally literate about the Scriptures.  By the Middle Ages, Latin was the lingua franca of monks and scholars but becoming far from the spoken vernacular.  Even so, the antiphonal recitation of psalms that can be in a question and answer form begins to mimic the spoken or sung words of actors.  The addition of tropes to standard sections of the Mass to make the liturgy seasonally appropriate allowed the addition of verses and music and consequently new voices.  These could intensify the inherent drama of the Mass.  The first three Ordo Prophetarum that I discussed in Part 1 were all in Latin verse, and therefore, would have been understood by the clergy and some of the congregation.  Unfortunately, the surviving manuscripts all date from the same time period that Jesse Tree stained glass windows were being made.  So one can logically ask if the profusion of prophets in the Rouen Ordo Prophetarum influenced the specific identification of prophets in Jesse Tree windows that came later in the 13th century.  Or did the profusion of unidentified generic prophets (and kings) in the 11th and 12th century French Jesse Tree windows result in familiarity of the designers and glaziers with the various procession of the prophets plays, and therefore encourage the inclusion and identification of the prophets in Jesse Trees.  I do not know if enough evidence will ever be found to answer the question as to which elements of the various prophet procession plays influenced Jesse Tree design or what elements of Jesse Tree design impacted the development of Latin and vernacular drama.  All the can be said is that the literary root for Jesse Trees seems to be the sermon of Quodvultdeus, Contra Judæos, Paganos, et Arianos: Sermo de Symbolo.

       The instructional value of stained glass windows including Jesse Trees and the so-called “Poor Man’s Bible windows” cannot be doubted.  Pope Gregory the Great (pope from 590-604) wrote a letter to Serenus, bishop of Marseilles, commenting on the value of graphic presentation.  In translation: 

            It is one thing to adore a picture, another to learn from narrative pictures
            what should be adored.  For what scripture is to those who can read, a picture
            offers to the illiterate who look at it, for in it the ignorant see what should be
            imitated and those who do not understand writing read from it.  For this
            reason painting is above all a substitute for reading to the ordinary people.[1] 

Despite their instructional value, most of the French Jesse Tree windows already mentioned are placed in the choir or chapels where their predominate audience would have been monks and clergy and not the congregation or those lay persons who gathered within the nave of the church building for other reasons.

       Probably the earliest liturgical drama was the recitation of Quem quaeritis in sepulchro, o Christicolae? (Whom do you seek in the grave, O Christians?) which is an adaption of John 18.4 when Jesus asks the Roman soldiers sent to arrest him, “Whom do you seek?” The Quem quaeritis verses preceded the opening Introit for Easter Resurrexi et adhuc tecum sum, alleluia: (I am risen and am still with you, Alleluia).  This developed further in the Matins service to include a series of recitations called the Visit to the Tomb or Visitatio sepulchri.  These seemed to include verses for three Maries at the tomb, Peter and John running to the tomb, and Mary Magdalene and the gardener at the tomb.  Short dramas were written for the Supper at Emmaus as well.

       The liturgical recitations expended into short plays.  For Christmas there were Shepherds’ Play, Officium Pastorum; the killing of the boys of Bethlehem (Holy Innocents), Ordo Rachelis and Ludus Innocentium; and the play of the Magi (Officium Stellæ) for Epiphany. (Perhaps some reader will remember struggling through The Second Shephers' Play in high school English class.  I know I do.)  For Holy Week, Passion plays developed.  Some plays developed from New Testament stories such as the parable of the wise and foolish virgins, the resurrection of Lazarus, and the Conversion of St. Paul from Acts. Other plays include apocryphal sources, Catholic legend, and pious fables.  Another favorite was the Play of Daniel with surviving music and text. 

       The only medieval play that we now have for which the author and composer is known is Hildegard von Bingen’s Ordo Virtutum composed about 1151.  The sung drama in plainchant is about the struggle for Anima (Soul), between the Virtues and the Devil.  The drama begins when the Virtues are introduced to Patriarchs and Prophets, not specified.  The embodied souls sing about being pilgrims and the struggles and temptations of the world.  Anima admits she does not fit into a celestial gown instead wanting to enjoy the world as the Devil enters and tells Anima to “Look to the world.”  Anima goes to live in the world.  The Virtues including Humility argue with the “ancient dragon.”  Then the Virtues individually contend with the Devil by describing how each is a defender of the Soul/Anima and a dweller in Paradise.  The Virtues are: Humility, Love, Fear of God, Obedience, Faith, Hope, Chastity, Innocence, Contempt for the World, Celestial Love, Discipline, Modesty, Victory, Discretion, and Patience.  In the meantime, Anima is now in woe from her sins and calls upon the Virtues.  Anima is afraid and the Virtues comfort her.  The Anima confesses that she is an exiled pilgrim who needs “the blood of the son of God” to raise her up.  The Devil is angry with Anima for forsaking him.  The Devil goes on to taunt Chastity.  The Devil is vanquished as the Virtues sing a hymn in praise of God and to His son who stretches his hand out to all sinners.[2]

       One particular collection of plays that is usually given special attention is the Fleury Playbook.  The Fleury play book is just one part of a larger manuscript that includes sermons and hymns that was assembled at the Abbey of Saint Benedict (Saint-Benoît) at Fleury on the Loire River in France.  The manuscripts dating from the late 12th century contains ten liturgical drama including three on the life of Saint Nicholas.  The manuscript is housed at the Bibliothèque de la Ville Orleans (MS 201). 

       A play that is hard to categorize is Orde representacionis Ade that goes by titles such as Le Mystère d'Adam, Jeu D’Adam or Play of Adam.[3]  A 12th century Anglo-Norman mystery play presents the stories of Adam and Eve and Cain and Abel from Genesis in the first act.  This mystery play has a second act with the prophets being called upon to speak about the coming Messiah.  The play is now incomplete.  It is written in a vernacular Anglo-Norman interspersed with Latin.  It was transcribed by someone who spoke a southern dialect (since bits of langue d’oc creep in).  The play is not liturgical drama but was presented outside on the west steps of the church with the church doors standing in for the gates of Heaven.  There are simple props such as a bench and chair, with more elaborate costumes and hand-held props.  The steps served as a separation of Heaven from Hell.  This play is based upon liturgical text used at Christmas and Easter, though it might have been presented just before or during Lent.[4] The procession of the prophets that concludes the Play of Adam includes different prophets and different texts than the Play of the Prophets(Ordo Prophetarum).  In any case, this mystery play may reflect the 1210 edict from Pope Innocent III forbidding clergy and monks from acting in public.  This undoubted led to the secularization of theatre.

       The Play of Adam opens with Abraham who has a very long beard.  After his speech, Abraham is taken to Hell by devils.  Abraham is followed by Moses and then Aaron who is holding a staff with flowers and fruit (nuts?), and then David enters dressed as a king with ornate crown.  They do not recite words from their respective books of the Bible but focus on the fruit of Salvation (Aaron) or the king of the earth that brings peace and destroys war (David).  Solomon speaks about the son of God who was slain at the hands of the master of the law (a not so oblique reference to Jews).  Balaam then arrives seated on an ass, speaking first in Latin the lines from Numbers 24.17, “A star shall rise out of Jacob and a scepter shall spring up from Israel: and shall strike the chiefs of Moab, and shall waste all the children of Seth.” (Douay-Rheims).  In the vernacular he speaks of how Christ is a bright star that shines over the earth.  Then comes Daniel, Habakkuk, Jeremiah, and Isaiah.  Isaiah has a book in his hand and wears a great cloak.  Isaiah opens with “egredietur virga de radice Iesse et flos de radice eius ascendet et requiescet super eum specie Domini.”  Again there is an error that could have occurred at any number of steps needed to get a 20th century print edition.  The Vulgate reads, “et egredietur virga de radice Iesse et flos de radice eius ascendet et requiescet super eum spiritus Domini,” translated as “And there shall come forth a rod out of the root of Jesse, and a flower shall rise up out of his root.  And the spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him…” Isaiah 11.1-2a. (translation Douay-Rheims)  When Isaiah enters, a discourse between Isaiah and Jew (Judeus) ensues.  Isaiah tells the Jew he is sick with error.  Isaiah says he will prophesy but the Jew calls it soothsaying.  Then Isaiah quotes the verse Isaiah 7.14 and Matthew 1.23 but neither one exactly, “Behold a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and his name shall be called Immanuel”  Isaiah expands on the verse to say that Mary is that Virgin who will bear the Savior who will bring Adam from suffering into Paradise. The last character to come on stage is Nebuchadnezzar who enters with a short Latin dialogue about the three Jewish boys in the fiery furnace.  The exact Latin is taken from Quodvultdeus’ Sermon and not a Biblical text.  The manuscript ends in the middle of Nebuchadnezzar’s speech. 

       Scholars have speculated as to how the procession of the prophets ended.  It seems likely that the speech of Nebuchadnezzar was followed by a Sibylline prophesy and then the Benedicamus.  On the other hand if the play ended with Benedictus es, Domine or Benedicite, omnia opera Domini, there would be no need to add a section for the Sibyl since both fit directly with the story of the three youths in the furnace and would require nothing further.

       I tried a bit of an experiment to see if I could link a Latin verse spoken by the prophets to a specific verse in the Vulgate.  For Habakkuk or Habacuc 3.2: Domine audivi auditionem tuam et timui Domine opus tuum in medio annorum vivifica  is translated “O Lord, I have heard thy hearing, and was afraid.  O Lord, thy work in the midst of the years bring it to life …”(Douay-Rheims)  In the Play of Adam, the monk has Abacuc say,:Domine audivi auditum tuum et timui; et expavi. In medio duum animalium cognosceri. (Lord, I have heard thy speech and was afraid: I trembled with fear. In the midst of two animals learn [or you shall be recognized].)  Clearly there are lots of ways a translation can go wrong.  The Author did have not a copy of the Vulgate text or probably even some sort of service book where the line from the prophet might be written down.  He was working from memory.  Then the work was written down and transcribed by several persons who may or may not been fluent in the original languages.  In any case, the language of Jeu d’Adam was spoken in England and a wide swath of France under the control of the Plantagenet kings of England.  It seems to fit comfortably between the Ordo Prophetarum and the Middle English Mystery play of England.

       When thinking about liturgical drama in England, one remembers cycles of plays from York (47 or 48 plays), Wakefield or Townley (30 or 32 plays), Chester (24 plays), and N-town or Ludus Coventriæ or Hegge plays(42).  To this are added one or two plays from places such as Coventry (Shearmen and Tailors’play and Weavers’ play), Newcastle, Norwich, and Northampton, and from Brome in Suffolk.  Other towns may have produced plays but no surviving examples exist.  These towns include Aberdeen, Bath, Beverley, Bristol, Canterbury, Dublin, Ipswich, Leicester, Worcester, Lincoln, and perhaps London.  Plays in Cornish also have survived.  It is hard to date these plays.  They are written in vernacular Middle English with some Latin interspersed.  The plays we now have date from the second half of the1400s to the 1600s.  Though it is possible that plays were performed at a much earlier date, but there is no surviving information.

       For the Chester cycle of plays there are five surviving versions in eight different manuscripts with some significant differences between the versions.  One version has the drama of Jesus Christ’s trial and flagellation as one play, but another version has this same set of events presented as two plays.  Since there was far from standard orthography, there are spelling differences among the versions.  Also, there are also differences in the texts with lines and even speeches in one copy but not in another.  Even counting the number of plays can be problematic since it is not always easy to tell if the verses were presented as separate plays or scenes from one play.  In the case of the N-town plays, among plays numbered 8-11 and 13, there is a Play of Mary.

       There is not much evidence that cycles of medieval mystery plays that have survived were performed as a complete cycle.  Though what evidence there is, suggests that performance of these plays was from fixed stages or wagon stages outdoors once they ceased to be liturgical dramas performed within the church.  Except for Orde representacionis Ade  or Jeu d’Adam, there is not much evidence that the plays were performed on the steps of churches or cathedrals. Therefore, presentation during a season of better weather such as Corpus Christi seems logical.[5]  The Feast of Corpus Christi, instituted in 1264, is celebrated on the Thursday after Trinity Sunday or the second Sunday of Pentecost.  The cycle of plays from the city of York is referred to a Corpus Christi plays and they were performed from pageant wagons.[6]  The plays range from the creation of the angels and the fall of Lucifer to the creation of Adam and Eve and the Fall.  The Old Testament (and apocryphal material) plays end with Pharaoh and Moses.  The New Testament stories pick up with the Annunciation, Nativity, Shepherds, Magi, Flight into Egypt, Baptism of Jesus, the Transfiguration, Entry into Jerusalem, Last Supper, Trial, Crucifixion, Resurrection, Road to Emmaus, Ascension, and Pentecost.  The play continues with the apocryphal stories about the Death of Mary, the Assumption of Mary, Coronation of the Virgin and ends with Doomsday.  Despite the length of the York cycle, there is no procession of the prophets included.  There is a reference to Isaiah 11.1 in the play The Annunciation to Mary and the Visitation (lines 80-80). [7]

This prophett sais for oure socoure,
Egredietur virga de Jesse,          [There shall come forth a rod out of Jesse]
A wande sall brede of Jesse boure.
And of this same also, sais hee,
Upponne that wande sall springe a floure   [flower]
Wheron the Haly Gast sall be
To governe it with grete honnoure.
That wande meynes untill us                     [signifies for us]
This mayden, even and morne,
And the floure is Jesus,
That of that blyst bees borne.

 A page from the manuscript of the York cycle of plays for the play on Doomsday.

       The Chester cycle of plays is incomplete and the surviving manuscripts date from late 1500s and early 1600s.  This cycle does not have a procession of the prophets among its plays.

       The Towneley manuscript plays or the Wakefield cycle, from the town of Wakefield in the West Riding of Yorkshire, does have a play, The Prophets, that clearly has its foundation in the Ordo Prophetarum from France.[8]  Instead of the usual few lines that each character might have in the Ordo Prophetarum plays, the author of the Wakefield Prophets play has given just four characters much longer monologues.  It opens with Moses speaking in Latin:

Prophetam excitabit deus de fratribus vestris;
Omnis anima, que non audierit prophetam illum,
exterminabitur de populo suo;
Nemo propheta sine honore nisi in patriâ suâ.
God shall raise up to you a prophet of your brothers;
Every soul who does not listen to that prophet
shall be cut off from his people.
No prophet is without honor save in his own country.

These lines seem to be an adaptation of what Peter speaks in Acts 3.22-3:

       Moses quidem dixit quia prophetam vobis suscitabit Dominus Deus veste
       de fratribus vestris tamquam me ipsum audietis iuxta omnia quaecumque
       locutus fuerit vobis erit autem omnis anima quae non audierit prophetam
       illum exterminabitur de plebe.
        For Moses said: A prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you o
        your brethren, like unto  me: him you shall hear according to all things
        whatsoever he shall speak to you.
        And it shall be, that every soul which will not hear that prophet, shall be
        destroyed from among the people. (Douay-Rheims)

The original reference is to Deuteronomy 18.18-19:

       I will raise them up a prophet out of the midst of their brethren like to
       thee: and I will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them
       all that I shall command him.  And he that will not hear his words,
       which he shall speak in my name, I will be the revenger. (Douay-Rheims)
       I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their own people;
       I will put my words in  the mouth of the prophet, who shall speak to
       them everything that I command. Anyone who does not heed the words
       that the prophet shall speak in my name, I myself will hold accountable.

The last line about the honor of a prophet are the words of Jesus as written down in Mark 6.4 and Matthew 13.57:… propheta sine honore nisi in patria sua …(A prophet is not without honor, but in his own country).

       Moses in the Wakefield Prophet’s play has a rather long speech of 58 lines.  After the Latin introduction, Moses recalls the fall of Adam and then goes on to speak about the coming Messiah whom all humankind will follow.  The Messiah will take them, the prophets of old, from Hell, a reference to the Hallowing of Hell:[9]
             Therfor will god, styr and rayse
            A prophete, in som man dayes,
            Of oure brethere kyn              [brother]
            And all trowes as he says,      [believe or think]
            And will walk in his ways,
            ffrom hell he will theym twyn. [separate]

Moses concludes with a rhymed recitation of the Ten Commandments in Middle English.

       Moses is followed by King David who reminds the audience that he is Jesse’s son.  He is king of Israel and plays a harp to announce to men that:

ffor god will that his son down send
That wroght adam with his hend,
And heuen and erth mayde.
He will lyght fro heuen towre,      [He will (be) light from heaven’s tower]
ffor to be mans saueyoure, …      [savior]

David is followed by Sibyl who opens with a quote from the Ordo Prophetarum:

Iudicii signum tellus sudore madescit,
E celo rex adueniet per secla futurus,
Scilicet in carne presens vt iudicet orbem.
Sign of judgment-soil drenched with sweat
From Heaven the King will come throughout the ages
That is to say, present in the flesh to judge the world.

The Sibyl is followed by Daniel who also opens with a line in Latin from the Ordo Prophetarum. His speech is short.  It seems as though there is material missing from the play. The script is incomplete.

            The N-Town or Nomen-Town manuscript is a compilation of separate plays in a large cycle.  The authors are unknown though there has been suggested that the poet John Lydgate may have had something to do with the authorship of the plays.  Many places have been suggested as the origin of the plays including the large Benedictine monastery of Bury St. Edmund.[10]  For now at least, the consensus of scholars is East Anglia.  The plays range from simple to quite complex.  The assembler of the texts put them in order from creation of heaven to Judgment Day.  So the order of the plays by time of composition, even the existence of plays such as a Play of Mary, has been impossible to disentangle except in general outline.  The N-town plays are the only set of plays that includes Play 7, “Root of Jesse” that serves as a procession of the prophets with noteworthy additions. [11]  The N-town plays are connected with Corpus Christi only by the words “The plaie called Corpus Christi” written across the top of the first page of the manuscript.[12]  The time and manner of performance of the N-town plays is not known though there is plenty of evidence that individual plays from the cycle were preformed independently of the cycle and on various occasions during the year.
            N-town plays are found in British Library MS. Cotton Vespasian D.VIII.[13]  The N-town mystery plays date from the 1463-1477, and so are later than most stained glass Jesse Trees.  Yet, these plays carry forward the earlier type of play especially in plays such as “Root of Jesse.”.  In the N-town cycle of plays, Play 7 is the “Root of Jesse. This play is unique in English mystery dramas. Though it is a type of procession of the prophets, the author added a selection of the kings of Judah .  The play uses the old method of calling prophets to testify for the need of a Savior called Jesus.  The author of the N-town Root of Jesse presents a king and then a prophet, a bit like the kings and prophets in Jesse Tree windows.

       For Jeremiah, one might have expected the lines from Jeremiah 33.15.
       15. in diebus illis et in tempore illo germinare faciam David germen 
             iustitiae et faciet iudicium et iustitiam in terra (Vulgate)
        15. In those days, and at that time, I will make the bud of justice
             to spring forth unto David, and he shall do judgment and justice
             in the earth.(Douay-Rheims)
        15. In those days and at that time I will cause a righteous Branch
              to spring up for David; and he execute justice and righteousness
              in the land. (NRSV)

Instead, the author of the Root of Jesse gives these lines to Jeremiah:
           Affermynge pleynly beforn this audyens      [plainly, audience]
          That God of his high benyvolens
          Of prest and kynge wyll take lynage
          And bye us all from oure offens                    [buy or redeem]
          In hevyn to have his herytage.

       Similarly for Micah, the author gives the prophets lines that have no Biblical basis though there may be an echo of Micah 5.2:

          But you, O Bethlehem of Ephrathah, who are one of the little clans of Judah,
         from you shall come forth for me one who is to rule in Israel,
         whose origin is from of old, from ancient days. (NRSV)

Prophet Michaes’ lines from The Root of Jesse (lines 53-56):

          And I am a prophete calde Mycheas.
          I telle yow pleynly that thus it is:           [plainly]
          Evyn lyke as Eve modyr of wo was,       [Even like as Eve mother of woe was]
          So shal a maydyn be modyr of blyss.      [So shall a maiden be mother of bliss.]

          The Root of Jesse. has a few lines:

Egredietur virga de radice Jesse                    A rod comes forth from Jesse
Et flos de radice eius ascendet.                     And grows out of his root.
A blyssyd braunch shal sprynge of me          A blessed branch shall spring of me
That shal be swettere than bawmys breth.     That shall be sweeter than balm’s breath
Out of that braunch in Nazareth                    Out of that branch in Nazareth
A flowre shal blome of me, Jesse Rote,        A flower shall bloom of me, Jesse’s Root
The which by grace shal dystroye deth          Which by grace will destroy death
And brynge mankende to blysse most sote.   And bring mankind to most sweet scented bliss.
       Comparison of the texts that are used in the “Sermon against Jews, Pagans, and Heretics,” with the Ordo Prophetarum from France, the Anglo-Norman Jeu d’Adam, the Towneley/Wakefield Prophets play and the N-Town Root of Jesse and the differences between the surviving manuscripts is far beyond the scope of this discussion. 

       For the purposes of understanding which Old Testament figures appear with regularity in Jesse Tree stained glass windows and illuminations, it is useful to look at the names of the prophets, kings, and other Biblical and extra-Biblical personages that appear in these four different sources for the Jesse Tree.  Table 2 is a listing of the dramatis personæ from the four works.  The list of names is useful since it explains in part why certain kings and prophets appear with greater frequency in Jesse Tree stained glass windows.[14]  The occurrence of these persons in public performances increases the awareness of them by the persons who designed and constructed stained glass windows, as well as the monks and artists illustrating psalters and gospel books.  In turn, the awareness of the figures that make up a Jesse Tree, especially the iconography associated with King David and King Solomon, would make the audience attending these plays look for certain characters.  For France there is some evidence that the Jesse Tree stained glass windows developed in parallel with the production of plays on the topic of the prophecy of the Messiah.  In England, the plays that survived until now all date to after the Jesse Tree windows were already made or being made for churches and cathedrals.

Table 2.  Comparison of the Dramatis Personae of Four Plays
Play of the Prophets or Ordo Prophetarum from the Laon script
Play of Adam or Orde representacionis Ade or Jeu d’Adam
The Prophets from the Towneley or Wakefield cycle
Root of Jesse from the N-town play cycle









Joram or Jehoram






Balaam & a boy under the ass
















John the Baptist




Root of Jesse

[1] Barbara C.Raw. Anglo-Saxon Crucifixion Iconography and the Art of the Monastic Revival (1990) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[2] <file:///C:/Users/Owner/Downloads/Ordo%20Virtutum%20(2).pdf>
[3]Muir, Lynette R.  Biblical Drama of Medieval Europe. (2003) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[4] Fassler, Margaret. “Representations of Time in Ordo representacionis Ade: Introduction.”Yale French Studies
Special Issue: Contexts: Style and Values in Medieval Art and Literature (1991), pp. 97-113.
[5] For a more complete description of the plays and their presentation, see Davidson, Clifford, ed. “Introduction” in The York Corpus Christi Plays.  Texts are available online. <>
[6] The York Corpus Christi plays are unique.  The more than 13,000 lines of verse are found in a manuscript in the British Library, MS. Add. 35290.  Texts are online at: <>
[7] <>   The east window of the parish church St. Denys in York contains the fragmented remains of a five lancet Jesse Tree window. The original Jesse Tree window probably dated from the 14th century. <>   St. Michael Spurriergate, York, also has a fragmented Jesse Tree window, s.4, from the 15th century. <>   York Minster has a late 14th century Jesse Tree window from New College Chapel, Oxford, and its own Jesse Tree window from 1310 with later restorations.  It is located on the south side of the nave (window 30 or s.XXXIII) <>
[8] <;idno=Towneley>
[9] The Towneley Plays.(1966) London: Oxford University Press for Early English Text Society. <>  <;view=toc>  “The Prophets” in The Towneley Plays <;view=fulltext>
[10] Gail M. Gibson. Bury St. Edmunds, Lydgate, and the N-Town Cycle. Speculum (1981) Vol. 56(1) 56-90.
[11] <>  The name of the community at which the plays were presented was substituted for Nomen or Name.
[12] Davidson, Clifford, ed. “Introduction” in  The York Corpus Christi Plays.  <>
[13] Sugano, Douglas, ed. N-Town Plays.(2007) Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications. <>  Rosemary Woolf. The English Mystery Plays.(1980) Berkley and Los Angeles. University of California Press.
[14] Stone, Edward N. “A Translation of the Pseudo-Augustine Sermon against Jews, Pagans and Arians concerning the Creed.” University of Washington Publications in Language and Literature (1928): 4(3). 195-214.  Young, Karl. “Ordo Prophetarum” Transactions of the University of Wisconsin Academy of Science, Art and Letters. (1921) 20:1-82.  Sugano, Douglas, ed. “Play 7. Root of Jesse” from the N-Town Plays. (2007)Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publication.  <>   Vaughan, M.F. “The Prophets of the ‘Anglo-Norman ‘Adam’”Traditio (1983) 39: 81-114. <;idno=Towneley>

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